This is the second part of my unit testing advice. See the first part on this blog.

If you need any introduction you should really read the first part. I’ll just present the other three ideas I wanted to cover.

Focusing on common cases

This consists of testing only/mostly common cases. These tests rarely fail and give a false sense of security. Thus, tests are better when they also include less common cases, as they’re much more likely to break inadvertently. Common cases not only break far less often, but will probably be caught reasonably fast once someone tries to use the buggy code, so testing them has comparatively less value than testing less common cases.

The best example I found was in the wrap_string tests. The relevant example was adding the string “A test of string wrapping…”, which wraps not to two lines, but three (the wrapping is done only on spaces, so “wrapping…” is taken as a single unit; in this sense, my test case could have been clearer and use a very long word, instead of a word followed by ellipsis). Most of the cases we’ll deal with will simply wrap a given word in two lines, but wrapping in three must work, too, and it’s much more likely to break if we decide to refactor or rewrite the code in that function, with the intention to keep the functionality intact.

See other examples of this in aa20bce (no tests with more than one consecutive newline, no tests with lines of only non-printable characters), b248b3f (no tests with just dots, no valid cases with more than one consecutive slash, no invalid cases with content other than slashes), 5e771ab (no directories or hidden files), f8ecac5 (invalid hex characters don’t fail, but produce strange behaviour instead; this test actually discovered a bug), 7856643 (broken escaped content) and 87e9f89 (trailing garbage).

Not trying to make the tests fail

This is related to the previous one, but the emphasis is on trying to choose tests that we think will fail (either now or in the future). My impression is that people often fail to do this because they are trying to prove that the code works, which misses the point of testing. The point is trying to prove the code doesn’t work. And hope that you fail at it, if you will.

The only example I could find was in the strcasecmpend tests. Note how there’s a test that checks that the last three characters of string “abcDEf” (ie. “DEf”) is less than “deg” when compared case-insensitively. That’s almost pointless, because if we made that same comparison case-sensitively (in other words, if the “case” part of the function breaks) the test still passes! Thus it’s much better to compare the strings “abcdef” and “Deg”.

Addendum: trying to cover all cases in the tests

There’s another problem I wanted to mention. I have seen several times before, although not in the Tor tests. The problem is making complicated tests that try to cover many/all cases. This seems to stem from the idea that having more test cases is good by itself, when actually more tests are only useful when they increase the chances to catch bugs. For example, if you write tests for a “sum” function and you’re already testing [5, 6, 3, 7], it’s probably pointless to add a test for [1, 4, 6, 5]. A test that would increase the chances of catching bugs would probably look more like [-4, 0, 4, 5.6] or [].

So what’s wrong with having more tests than necessary? The problem is they make the test suite slower, harder to understand at a glance and harder to review. If they don’t contribute anything to the chance of catching bugs anyway, why pay that price? But the biggest problem is when we try to cover so many test cases than the code produces the test data. In this cases, we have all the above problems, plus that the test suite becomes almost as complex as production code. Such tests become much easier to introduce bugs in, harder to follow the flow of, etc. The tests are our safety net, so we should be fairly sure that they work as expected.

And that’s the end of the tips. I hope they were useful :-)